Philip waged war against Byzantionleaving Alexander in charge as regent and heir apparent.
See Article History Alternative Titles: In Alexander was elected prince—a figure who functioned as little more than military commander—of the city of Novgorod. In he married the daughter of the Prince of Polotsk.
His standing enhanced by his victory, he apparently began to intervene in the affairs of the city and was expelled a few months later. Alexander, who continued to fight both the Swedes and Germans and eventually stopped their eastward expansion, also won many victories over the pagan Lithuanians and the Finnic peoples.
In the east, however, Mongol armies were conquering most of the politically fragmented Russian lands. When, in the ensuing struggle for the grand princely throne, Alexander and his younger brother Andrew appealed to Khan Batu of the Mongol Golden Hordehe sent them to the Great Khan.
Henceforth, for over a century, no northeastern Russian prince challenged the Mongol conquest. Alexander proceeded to restore Russia by building fortifications and churches and promulgating laws. As grand prince, he continued to rule Novgorod through his son Vasily, thus changing the constitutional basis of rule in Novgorod from personal sovereignty by invitation to institutional sovereignty by the principal Russian ruler.
When, inNovgorod, tiring of grand princely rule, expelled Vasily and invited an opponent of Mongol hegemonyAlexander assembled an army and reinstalled his son. In the Mongols, in order to levy taxes, took a census in most of Russia.
It encountered little opposition, but when news of the impending enumeration reached Novgorod an uprising broke out. In Alexander, fearing that the Mongols would punish all of Russia for the Novgorodian revolt, helped force Novgorod to submit to the census and to Mongol taxation.
This completed the process of imposing the Mongol yoke on northern Russia. In uprisings broke out in many towns against the Muslim tax farmers of the Golden Horde, and Alexander made a fourth journey to Saray to avert reprisals.
He succeeded in his mission, as well as in obtaining exemption for Russians from a draft of men for a planned invasion of Iran. Returning home, Alexander died on Nov.
After his death Russia once more disintegrated into many feuding principalities.
His personal power, based upon support of the princes, boyars, and clergy, as well as the fear of Mongols, could not be transmitted to any other man, including his weak sons.
Whether Alexander was a quisling in his dealings with the Mongol conquerors is a question seldom posed by Russian historians, because some Russian princes had for centuries concluded alliances with Turkic steppe nomads in order to gain advantage in domestic rivalries. He was supported by the church, which thrived under Mongol protection and tax exemption and feared the anti-Mongol princes who negotiated with the papacy.
For these reasons, Alexander by was elevated to the status of a local saint and was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church in This image of him was popular in northwestern Russia and has in succeeding centuries been adduced for propaganda purposes. Thus, after the conclusion of the war with Sweden, the Order of Alexander Nevsky was created inand during World War II in Julywhen Germany had deeply penetrated into the Soviet Union, Stalin pronounced Alexander Nevsky a national hero and established a military order in his name.Sir Henry Parkes (), politician and journalist, was born on 27 May in Warwickshire, England, youngest of the seven children of Thomas Parks, tenant farmer on Stoneleigh Abbey Estate, and his wife Martha, née Faulconbridge.
Ron Chernow is the prize-winning author of six books and the recipient of the National Humanities Medal. His first book, The House of Morgan, won the National Book Award, Washington: A Life won the Pulitzer Prize for Biography, and Alexander Hamilton was the inspiration for the Broadway ashio-midori.com new biography, Grant, will .
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Alexander Nevsky (–63) succeeded his brother Andrew; and Alexander’s brothers and sons succeeded him. Furthering the tendency toward fragmentation, however, none moved to Vladimir but remained in their regional seats and secured their local princely houses. Demi brings her unmistakable style to this pithy biography of the great Macedonian conquerer. Short paragraphs trace Alexander’s childhood and then his series of increasingly magnificent military campaigns as he conquered his way from Greece through Persia and into Asia. Detail of the ‘Alexander Mosaic,’ circa BC, recovered from the floor of the ‘House of the Faun’ in Pompeii, showing Alexander the Great (with a Gorgon’s head on his breastplate) charging toward King Darius of Persia in what is thought to be the Battle of Issus, BC In 51 BC, Marcus.
ROBERT J REANEY Representative from Louisa . Demi brings her unmistakable style to this pithy biography of the great Macedonian conquerer. Short paragraphs trace Alexander’s childhood and then his series of increasingly magnificent military campaigns as he conquered his way from Greece through Persia and into Asia.
Detail of the ‘Alexander Mosaic,’ circa BC, recovered from the floor of the ‘House of the Faun’ in Pompeii, showing Alexander the Great (with a Gorgon’s head on his breastplate) charging toward King Darius of Persia in what is thought to be the Battle of Issus, BC In 51 BC, Marcus.
Alexander was born on the sixth day of the ancient Greek month of Hekatombaion, which probably corresponds to 20 July BC, although the exact date is disputed, in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon.
He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Although .