Total number of slaves in the Lower South: Total number of slaves in the Upper South: Total number of slaves in the Border States:
John Paul Vann, who told them a different story. They learned that the fighting had ended the day before, and that it had not been a success.
They make the same…mistakes over and over again in the same way. Close relations between correspondents and advisers such as Vann gave the other side of the picture.
The battle at Bac, however, was more than just another case of official optimism. It Ap road to civil war something of a cause celebre that changed American views on the war. After Ap Bac, Americans increasingly lost hope that the Vietnamese armed forces could win their own war, lost faith in the ability of the Saigon government to pursue the war competently, and grudgingly began to conclude that American combat troops would be needed.
This was one of the turning points in a long war. If not altogether rosy, the situation at least looked hopeful in the months before the battle at Ap Bac.
In the last months ofthe great prize in Vietnam was the Mekong Delta, an incredibly rich area producing most of the rice and a wealth of other crops in South Vietnam. The southern part of the delta had been a Viet Cong stronghold for years, as it had been a base area for the Viet Minh during the French Indochinese War.
Although the government maintained an infantry division in the southern half of the delta, it had really given up trying to control the region. In those provinces, the real government was run by the Viet Cong.
The situation in the northern half of the delta was not so bad. The Viet Cong did not have such a tight grip on the villages, and firm, positive government action could still sway the two million inhabitants away from Communist forces, which the United States estimated at 2, main force and 3, regional guerrillas.
The five provinces, some 6, square miles of difficult terrain ranging from the swamps in the west to the checkerboard of rice paddies in the central regions, were the responsibility of the 7th Division of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. Many thought that the war would be won or lost in these provinces, lying just to the south of the capital.
If that were true, then the ARVN 7th Division would fight the critical battles of the war from its headquarters at My Tho, less than 40 miles by road from Saigon.
In May, shortly after Vann arrived as adviser to division commander Colonel Huynh Van Cao, 7th Division patrols surprised a large number of guerrillas who unwisely tried to flee across open terrain.
The Vietnamese Air Force, cooperating with the 7th Division, had easy targets and killed almost a hundred, including a battalion commander. Among the 24 prisoners was another battalion commander. Colonel Cao was naturally pleased with such a striking success, particularly since he had obtained it at almost no cost to his own forces.
Thereafter, the 7th Division moved from success to success. Superior armament helped to. Although the Communists were learning not to flee into the open where fighter-bombers could attack them, they were still being surprised by the extraordinary mobility that helicopters gave the government troops and by the discrete firepower of armed helicopters.
Perhaps the most effective technical wrinkle was the armored personnel carrier, the M The APC was ideal for work in the delta because it had a limited swim capability and could maneuver in the marshy and wet ground throughout the region.
Its light aluminum armor was proof against any weapon the VC had in those days and its. When first confronted with the APC, surprised Viet Cong troops broke and ran, and thus were easily killed. The upshot was that, by the end ofthe 7th ARVN Division was well on its way to establishing a reputation as the most aggressive and successful in the South Vietnamese Army.
Allowing for the inevitable inflation in claims, the American advisers could still calculate that the 7th Division had killed more than 2, enemy soldiers, enough to cut deeply into Communist operations in the northern delta region.
Huynh Van Cao was not the hard-fighting general he appeared to be, nor was he a particularly able military commander. InDiem remained fearful of military coups like the earlier abortive paratrooper coup. He, rather than the general staff, named key commanders, and he always chose men on the basis of their personal loyalty to him.
Similarly, Diem appointed the province chiefs from the Vietnamese officer corps, again selecting men on the basis of their loyalty and reliability.
This was one more piece of insurance against collusion among his officers. Diem feared high casualty rates because he believed that casualties were the factor that had triggered the paratrooper coup attempt. Neil Sheehan, reporting on this phenomenon, noted that the real frustration among the elite airborne officers had been casualties generated by pointless and unproductive fighting.
Diem apparently never grasped that subtle distinction, and simply measured his commanders on the basis of how few casualties their units suffered. Fear of casualties naturally produced a tendency among the division commanders to avoid contact with the enemy whenever possible.
There was, however, a second reason for the wise Vietnamese commander to avoid battle, even if casualty rates could be kept down.This period lays the foundation for much of civilization as we know it today.
The classical Greeks lay the cultural foundation for Western civilization. The Achaemenid Persians under Cyrus unify much of the Middle East and Egypt.
Alexander the Great unifies Greece with Persia. Later, the Roman Empire dominates the Mediterranean and Europe. Get the latest science news and technology news, read tech reviews and more at ABC News.
Perhaps no feeling was more horrifying to a soldier in the Civil War than the realization deep into a charge against the enemy that the assault was doomed. The Midterm Elections are fast approaching. ABC News brings you in-depth coverage and breaking political news, as voters determine the Senate and House of Representatives.
What is the purpose of each of the primary source documents in this lesson? Can a document address more than one issue (race relations, Cold War)? Texas State has fired coach Everett Withers after falling to on Saturday with a loss to Troy.
The Bobcats were in each of Withers' first two seasons.