German revolution essay

Prior toGermany was not only fragmented but retained much of the feudal system.

German revolution essay

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The German Revolution

My interest in the topic stemmed from the fact that I was aware of the topic, and the debate on what role it played in the failure of Weimar democracy, but I had little knowledge of the actual events in Germany in Abstract back to top The paper addresses the failure of the German Revolution in the yearsand the argument put forward on why the revolution failed by Sebastian Haffner.

The paper questions Haffner's assertion that the failure of the revolution was caused primarily by the actions of Friedrich Ebert, the SPD leader. Haffner argues that Ebert conspired with the traditional German elites in order to bring about the downfall of the revolution that wanted to rid Germany of the monarchy, the conservative bureaucracy, and the old elites.

The paper concludes that Haffner's interpretation places too much emphasis on the role of Ebert and not enough on the role of the revolutionary masses in the revolution's failure.

The workers installed as their leader someone who was determined to bring about the revolution's demise. Therefore, a more balanced conclusion of events showing the role that both Ebert and the workers played is presented.

The main question that the book addresses is: He argues that Ebert enlisted the help of the old elites, especially the armed forces, in an attempt to maintain the status quo, and that that was the primary reason for the failure of the revolution.

This paper, however, argues that the reason for the failure of the revolution was the fact that the revolutionary masses, which wanted to abolish the monarchy, armed forces hierarchy, the bureaucracy, and the old elites, put someone at their helm who was determined to maintain those institutions.

Haffner at first sketches a brief history of the SPD, and details the position it found itself inand why it found itself there. He argues that by the SPD had grown into parliamentary democracy and no longer had any strong ties with its revolutionary beginnings.

In his book Rudolf Coper supports this argument, but goes further and points to the fact that revolution, as a tool for gaining political power, had effectively been renounced by the Erfurt Program of Coper, The fact that the SPD had renounced revolution as a tool for gaining political power was well known.

Therefore, the course that Ebert took during the revolution was unsurprising, and as a result it was a mistake for the revolutionary masses to look to the SPD for leadership, which is exactly what it did.

Haffner maintains that Ludendorff wanted to prevent both a military defeat and a revolution, and that he sought to achieve this by handing power over to a socialist coalition Haffner, This is demonstrated in the way that the revolution started.

The sailors at Kiel mutinied on 29 October because they wanted an end to the war, whereas their officers wanted to preserve their honor with one last naval battle Haffner, Therefore, both Ebert and the revolutionary masses wanted an end to the war and were not at odds with each other at this point.

Robin Garnham on Sebastian Haffner ()

While both the revolutionaries and Ebert agreed that ending the war was the primary goal, their reasons for wanting to end it quickly were rather different. The workers were tired of the war and wanted it to cease so as to end the deprivations of war.

On the other hand, by late October Ebert was in agreement with the Kaiser, the High Command, and the Chancellor and SPD leaders that the war needed to be ended so as to prevent the spread of revolution. These elites were in a favorable position to aid Ebert in bringing about the demise of the revolution.

Although Ebert wanted an end to the war, unbeknown to the workers, he also wanted also to maintain the monarchy.

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Haffner argues that Prince Max von Baden, the Chancellor, and Ebert were both in agreement that the Kaiser needed to abdicate in order to stop the revolution.

Ebert, however, did not want the Kaiser to abdicate. But I will have none of it, I hate it like sin. The monarchy could not be saved, but the split demonstrates how the aims of the workers and Ebert were already diverging before 9 November, and how closely aligned with the traditional elites Ebert was.

On 9 November Ebert concluded a pact with General Groener that was tantamount to an alliance between the armed forces and the new government. Haffner berates Ebert for concluding the pact Haffner, On the other hand, Shepardson argues that both Ebert and Groener had to enter into the pact out of necessity Shepardson, According to Haffner Ebert concluded the pact with Groener because they both wanted to bring an end to the workers councils, which were established in late October and early November, and they both wanted to prevent a Bolshevik revolution.

They wanted a return of order and a national assembly along the lines of the pre-war model. On the very day that Ebert assumed the leadership of the revolution, he was also conspiring with a figurehead of the old regime to bring about the demise of the revolution.

German revolution essay

As a whole the councils were incapable of governing adequately. Haffner, however, does not address this point, he merely criticizes Ebert for not supporting the councils Haffner, When the revolutionary workers and soldiers tried to radically change the nature of the government that Ebert headed, Ebert was the one who undermined it.

He established himself in the revolutionary councils, while at the same time maintaining close relations with those involved in organizing the Freikorps, especially Groener.

While the soldiers and sailors were tearing off their insignia of rank Haffner,Ebert was concluding a pact with Groener to preserve the armed forces hierarchy.The German revolutions of –49 (German: Deutsche Revolution /), the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (German: Märzrevolution), were initially part of the Revolutions of that broke out in many European countries.

They were a series of loosely coordinated protests and rebellions in the states of the German . The Velvet Revolution Essay - The Velvet Revolution The Velvet Revolution is not about delicious red velvet cake but instead sweet freedom of a new government.

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Even better than a new government it was short and sweet as well. Ebert, the Masses, and the German Revolution, Book Essay on: Sebastian Haffner, Failure of a Revolution: Germany (Berne: Andre Deutsch, ), pages.

Since under conflict theory, war in the form of proletariat revolution is a historical inevitability, all geopolitical conflict can be defined in terms of labor versus capital. We will write a custom essay sample on German Industrial revolution specifically for you.

The German Revolution forced the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II, ending the Hohenzollern monarchy and plunging Germany into weeks of political struggle and uncertainty.

The revolution began with the Kiel mutiny of late October, which within a week had spread to numerous towns and military bases across Germany.

The German Revolution forced the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II, ending the Hohenzollern monarchy and plunging Germany into weeks of political struggle and uncertainty.

The revolution began with the Kiel mutiny of late October, which within a week had spread to .

The German Revolution, History in an Hour