It is probably the first thing tourists think about when they visit China. People know it is huge and that it protected a kingdom, but many do not know the history behind it and the details of its construction.
Religion and the Politics of Chinese Modernity.
Harvard University Asia Center, By Stefania Travagnin The past decade has seen the publication of several studies examining the new conceptualization and practice of religion that developed in China at the end of the nineteenth century and continued throughout the twentieth century.
From a variety of perspectives, these books have connected religion with other topics, such as state, society, gender, modernity, globalization, and material culture.
Superstitious Regimes is an interdisciplinary work that sheds new light on the interaction between the state-body and the religion-body in early twentieth-century China, with a focus on the Nanjing Decade Nedostup develops her analysis from both a diachronic and synchronic perspective. The author underlines shifts and continuities between a few historical periods: In terms of agency, Nedostup draws a distinction between the nation-body and local offices within the political context, while within the religion-body agency is shared by communities and individuals, monastics and laity, worship leaders and worshippers.
Nedostup assesses the role of religion in the construction of modernity and political power in the yearsas well as identifies the role of modernity in the reconstruction of religious practice.
She thus addresses questions of traditionalism, modernity, secularism, and superstition through the historical narrative of the reinvention of religious practices in China. The book is divided into three parts. The consequences of attacks on City God temples demonstrated the challenges that Nationalists would face by insisting on the imposition of drastic changes in local rituals and religious power structure.
They were thus construed as less socially useful than the clergy of established religions. A crucial part of this campaign was the attempt to replace local Chinese medical practices with modern Western medicine.
Then, important occasions like rituals linked to Confucius, the Ghost Festival, and funeral and burial rituals were all questioned and reconsidered in the light of the new secular faith in the party and the nation.
The book ends with the English translation of the three main regulations on religious properties and clergy issued by the KMT: Beginning in the early s, thousands of farmers in the Yellow River provinces of Henan, Hebei, Hubei, and Shanxi had contracted HIV through commercial blood selling.
Local government officials in Henan promoted blood and plasma selling as a rural development scheme that would lift farmers out of poverty. Unsafe pooling and re-injection practices exposed thousands to HIV; secondary transmission then occurred on an even wider scale through the use of contaminated blood products in hospitals as well as transmission to sexual partners and children by those already infected.
After the epidemic came to light, the Chinese government banned the sale of blood and worked to increase the safety of the blood supply.
Yet local officials also denied the scale of the epidemic and harassed journalists, physicians, and other activists who sought to document the extent of the blood disaster. The discovery of aizibing cun, or AIDS villages, in central China forced government leaders to confront a pattern of HIV transmission among Han Chinese unrelated to opium trafficking and injecting drug use among ethnic minority communities along the Chinese-Burmese border.
His omniscient narration serves mainly to illuminate the thoughts of his grandfather, who tries to care for sick villagers while shouldering the remorse his son Ding Hui never musters. Yan sometimes paints the villagers as comical rubes, easily placated by even the smallest self-serving kindness from Ding Hui and other officials.
AIDS quickly infiltrates every level of Party, village, and clan politics.The Great Wall of China is one of the largest building projects ever carried out. It stretches about 1, miles from Bo Hai off the Yellow Sea in the East to the Gansu province in the West.
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