Christian theology is inextricably linked with ancient hellenistic philosophy. Although the very earliest beginnings of Christianity were not related to Greek philosophy in any substantial way, by the time Christianity became a fully institutionalized religion, Greek philosophical concepts had integrated almost fully with Christianity.
Wittenberg,engraving, 18 x 15 cm State and University Library, Dresden A Challenge to the Church in Rome In art history, the 16th century sees the styles we call the High Renaissance followed by Mannerism, and—at the end of the century—the emergence of the Baroque style.
For the history of art this has particular significance since the use and abuse of images was the topic of debate. In fact, many images were attacked and destroyed during this period, a phenomenon called iconoclasm.
For example, Baptist is currently the largest denomination in the United States but there are many dozens more. How did this happen?
Where did they all begin? To understand the Protestant Reform movement, we need to go back in history to the early 16th century when there was only one church in Western Europe - what we would now call the Roman Catholic Church - under the leadership of the Pope in Rome.
Today, we call this "Roman Catholic" because there are so many other types of churches ie Methodist, Baptist, Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican - you get the idea. The Church and the State So, if we go back to the yearthe Church what we now call the Roman Catholic Church was very powerful politically and spiritually in Western Europe and in fact ruled over significant territory in Italy called the Papal States.
But there were other political forces at work too. There was the Holy Roman Empire largely made up of German speaking regions ruled by princes, dukes and electorsthe Italian city-states, England, as well as the increasingly unified nation states of France and Spain among others.
The power of the rulers of these areas had increased in the previous century and many were anxious to take the opportunity offered by the Reformation to weaken the power of the papacy the office of the Pope and increase their own power in relation to the Church in Rome and other rulers.
Keep in mind too, that for some time the Church had been seen as an institution plagued by internal power struggles at one point in the late s and s church was ruled by three Popes simultaneously.
Popes and Cardinals often lived more like kings than spiritual leaders. Popes claimed temporal political as well as spiritual power. They commanded armies, made political alliances and enemies, and, sometimes, even waged war.
Simony the selling of Church offices and nepotism favoritism based on family relationships were rampant. Clearly, if the Pope was concentrating on these worldly issues, there wasn't as much time left for caring for the souls of the faithful. The corruption of the Church was well known, and several attempts had been made to reform the Church notably by John Wyclif and Jan Husbut none of these efforts successfully challenged Church practice until Martin Luther's actions in the early s.
Luther sparked the Reformation in by posting, at least according to tradition, his "95 Theses" on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany - these theses were a list of statements that expressed Luther's concerns about certain Church practices - largely the sale of indulgences, but they were based on Luther's deeper concerns with Church doctrine.
Before we go on, notice that the word Protestant contains the word "protest" and that reformation contains the word "reform" - this was an effort, at least at first, to protest some practices of the Catholic Church and to reform that Church, Indulgences The sale of indulgences was a practice where the church acknowledged a donation or other charitable work with a piece of paper an indulgencethat certified that your soul would enter heaven more quickly by reducing your time in purgatory.
If you committed no serious sins that guaranteed your place in hell, and you died before repenting and atoning for all of your sins, then your soul went to Purgatory - a kind of way-station where you finished atoning for your sins before being allowed to enter heaven.
Pope Leo X had granted indulgences to raise money for the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Luther was gravely concerned about the way in which getting into heaven was connected with a financial transaction. But the sale of indulgences was not Luther's only disagreement with the institution of the Church.
Faith Alone Martin Luther was very devout and had experienced a spiritual crisis. He concluded that no matter how "good" he tried to be, no matter how he tried to stay away from sin, he still found himself having sinful thoughts.
He was fearful that no matter how many good works he did, he could never do enough to earn his place in heaven remember that, according to the Catholic Church, doing good works, for example commissioning works of art for the Church, helped one gain entrance to heaven.It provides a reminder that is written in a language, time, and culture not our own, that the light of the gospel has been refracted in other parts of the prism.
We will become interested, for instance, in what Greek fathers have to say about passages and not just commentaries from last century, though these will help .
The spread of Christianity happened at the grass roots level, and men and women from every walk of life not only gave their lives to Christ, and sought to win . Roman Impact on Christianity; Roman Impact on Christianity.
Words Apr 23rd, 7 Pages. Abigania 1 he helped spread the Gospel by expelling the Jews (including the ones who believed in the Jesus’ message) out of Rome.
The Romans were heavily influenced by Greek philosophy, theology, literature, art, and architecture. Archbishop Demetrios, Geron of America, is the Primate of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America since He was born Demetrios Trakatellis in Thessaloniki, Greece on February 1, In he graduated with distinction from the University of Athens School of Theology.
Spread of Christianity in Europe research papers look at the Christian religion and how it flooded European countries. Christian Theology - Christian Theology custom research papers look into the intellectual and philosophical construct through which the ideas and dogmas of Christianity, one of the world’s three major faiths, are expressed.
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