The research question in this thesis is: Kennedy was an effective President? The Delegation factor assesses what competence and perspectives that will bring input into the decision-making which will carry out the vision.
Print this page The 'gravest issues' Early on Tuesday 16 OctoberJohn F Kennedy's national security assistant, McGeorge Bundy, brought to the President's bedroom some high-altitude photographs taken from U-2 planes flying over Cuba.
They showed Soviet soldiers hurriedly and secretly setting up nuclear-armed missiles. For some time previously the Soviets had openly been sending weaponry to Cuba, including surface-to-air anti-aircraft missiles SAMs.
To deflect any criticism about this from the Republicans, who were busy campaigning for the November congressional elections, Kennedy had said he would not protest about such defensive weaponry being installed in Cuba, but warned that if the Soviets ever introduced offensive weapons, 'the gravest issues would arise.
Since Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev had promised repeatedly not to send offensive weapons to Cuba, and America's top intelligence analysts had predicted that he would keep his word, Kennedy felt safe in voicing this warning. The U-2 photographs, however, showed that Khrushchev had been lying.
The 'gravest issues' were at hand. The United States at the time had more than 25, nuclear weapons in their arsenal. The Soviet Union had not quite half as many.
Kennedy's predecessor, Dwight Eisenhower, had calculated in that, if a crisis led either side to fire nuclear weapons, all humans in the northern hemisphere could perish.
Early in his presidency, Kennedy had had to make a decision about a CIA plan to land Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs, in Cuba, with the hope that these exiles would overthrow Cuba's Communist government, headed by Fidel Castro.
Kennedy had asked for advice about this from only a handful of people - those he knew he was officially obliged to consult. The operation proved to be a fiasco, and afterwards Kennedy had resolved in future to consult more widely.
Included in the ExComm were the regular participants in National Security Council meetings, plus Kennedy's brother, the attorney general Robert Kennedy, and the President's chief speechwriter, the White House counsel Theodore Sorensen.
Both of these men could help Kennedy to think about the domestic political aspects of the crisis. The President also invited several other key advisors to join the group: C Douglas Dillon, who had held high posts under Eisenhower and who gave Kennedy a link to the Republican leadership; Dean Acheson and Robert Lovett, who had served under President Harry Truman and could help Kennedy see the current crisis in longer historical perspective; and a former ambassador to the Soviet Union, Llewellyn Tommy Thompson, probably the person in the President's circle who was best acquainted with Khrushchev.
We know today exactly what was said in the meetings of the ExComm, because Kennedy had a tape recorder installed in an unused part of the White House basement We know today exactly what was said in the meetings of the ExComm, because Kennedy had a tape recorder installed in an unused part of the White House basement, with wires running to concealed microphones in the Oval Office and Cabinet Room.
He had told no one about this other than his private secretary, the two guards who maintained the machines, and perhaps his brother, Robert.
Since he kept it on through almost all ExComm meetings, anyone today can listen in on the proceedings. Top Quarantine In the first day's debates, everyone favoured bombing Cuba. The only differences concerned the scale of attack.
Kennedy, Bundy, and some others spoke of a 'surgical strike' solely against the missile sites. Others joined the chiefs of staff in insisting that an attack should also take out air defence sites and bombers, so as to limit losses of US aircraft and prevent an immediate air reprisal against US bases in Florida.
The under secretary of state, George Ball, had commented that a US surprise attack on Cuba would be ' It's the kind of conduct that one might expect of the Soviet Union. It is not conduct that one expects of the United States. To meet this concern and to obtain time for gaining support from other nations, there developed the idea of the President's publicly announcing the presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba, ordering a blockade to prevent the introduction of further missiles, and demanding that the Soviets withdraw the missiles already there.
Both for legal reasons and for resonance with Franklin Roosevelt's 'Quarantine Address' ofthe term 'quarantine' was substituted for 'blockade'. To those of Kennedy's advisers who still favoured quick use of military force the 'hawks' in later classificationthis quarantine constituted an ultimatum.
If Khrushchev did not capitulate within a day or two, a US air attack on Cuba would follow, followed before long by an invasion.
For those in the ExComm who would later be classed as 'doves,' the quarantine bought time for possibly developing some diplomatic solution. Geography doesn't mean that much', he said.
But Kennedy explained over and over to members of the ExComm and others why, since he had issued the warning and Khrushchev had chosen to challenge him, the crisis involved much more than just a personal affront. The reason was that, for Kennedy, the crisis was not centrally about missiles in Cuba; it was about Berlin.
The Soviets had tried to take over West Berlin in Their blockade had been frustrated by an Anglo-American airlift and by the astonishing resolution of the West Berliners, but in Khrushchev had once more revived the threat, and he continued to do so.
Inhe and the East Germans built a wall around West Berlin as a stopgap measure to halt the exodus of East Germans from Soviet-controlled areas.
Earlier in he had told Kennedy that he intended to act on West Berlin as soon as the US congressional elections were over. Kennedy interpreted the installation of missiles in Cuba as a move preparatory to a showdown on Berlin.
Counselled by Thompson, Kennedy interpreted the installation of missiles in Cuba as a move preparatory to a showdown on Berlin. For him, such a showdown would create a horrible dilemma.As a perpetual student of leadership, through my interviews with great leaders, I was able to learn and amalgamate what I deemed the Twelve Absolutes of Leadership.
John F. Kennedy has all twelve. Raynham House Museum. Students from John F. Kennedy Middle School joined Ms. Klein and Ms. McKweon and visited the Raynham House Museum in Oyster Bay. Kennedy's two original medals are currently on display at the John F.
Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.  On August 12, , Kennedy's older brother, Joe Jr., a navy pilot, was killed while volunteering for a special and hazardous air mission. On June 6, , an assassin`s bullet not only prematurely ended the life of Robert Francis Kennedy, the politician, but Kennedy the father, and Kennedy the potential statesman who was passionate about a number of global and national issues.
John F. Kennedy also played a role in situational leadership where he had to loosen his management approach to every circumstance. He considered being successful with the authoritative leadership style when he was the “inhabitant specialist.” (Lewis J.
Paper, ). JFK’s Leadership Style As we have discussed before, the idea of the great leader as sole player is flawed. The point leader can’t do it alone. John F. Kennedy is said to have wondered how a man could conceive of seeking the job of the president when the problems were obviously bigger than mortal man should have to handle.
It can only be.