Paleo-Indians and Settlement of the Americas This map shows the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites Clovis theory. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and the present-day United States. The prevailing theory proposes that people migrated from Eurasia across Beringiaa land bridge that connected Siberia to present-day Alaska during the Ice Ageand then spread southward throughout the Americas over the subsequent generations.
Flutes and whistles made of wood, cane, or bone are also played, generally by individuals, but in former times also by large ensembles as noted by Spanish conquistador de Soto. The tuning of modern flutes is typically pentatonic. Some, such as John Trudellhave used music to comment on life in Native America, and others, such as R.
Carlos Nakai integrate traditional sounds with modern sounds in instrumental recordings, whereas the music by artist Charles Littleleaf is derived from ancestral heritage and nature. A variety of small and medium-sized recording companies offer an abundance of recent music by Native American performers young and old, ranging from pow-wow drum music to hard-driving rock-and-roll and rap.
The most widely practiced public musical form among Native Americans in the United States is that of the pow-wow. At pow-wowssuch as the annual Gathering of Nations in AlbuquerqueNew Mexicomembers of drum groups sit in a circle around a large drum.
Drum groups play in unison while they sing in a native language and dancers in colorful regalia dance clockwise around the drum groups in the center. Familiar pow-wow songs include honor songs, intertribal songs, crow-hops, sneak-up songs, grass-dances, two-steps, welcome songs, going-home songs, and war songs.
Most indigenous communities in the United States also maintain traditional songs and ceremonies, some of which are shared and practiced exclusively within the community. Pueblo peoples crafted impressive items associated with their religious ceremonies.
Kachina dancers wore elaborately painted and decorated masks as they ritually impersonated various ancestral spirits. Sculpture was not highly developed, but carved stone and wood fetishes were made for religious use.
Superior weaving, embroidered decorations, and rich dyes characterized the textile arts. Both turquoise and shell jewelry were created, as were high-quality pottery and formalized pictorial arts.
Navajo spirituality focused on the maintenance of a harmonious relationship with the spirit world, often achieved by ceremonial acts, usually incorporating sandpainting.
The colors—made from sand, charcoal, cornmeal, and pollen—depicted specific spirits. These vivid, intricate, and colorful sand creations were erased at the end of the ceremony. The Eastern Woodland Indians used the hoe.
Native American art comprises a major category in the world art collection. Native American contributions include potterypaintingsjewelryweavingssculpturebasketryand carvings. The integrity of certain Native American artworks is protected by an act of Congress that prohibits representation of art as Native American when it is not the product of an enrolled Native American artist.
Writing and communication[ edit ] Sequoyahinventor of the Cherokee syllabary Native Americans in the United States have developed several original systems of communication, both in Pre-Columbian times, and later as a response to European influences.
For example, the Iroquoisliving around the Great Lakes and extending east and north, used strings or belts called wampum that served a dual function: The keepers of the articles were seen as tribal dignitaries. PISL is a trade language or international auxiliary languageformerly a trade pidginthat was once the lingua franca across central Canada, central and western United States and northern Mexico, used among the various Plains Nations.
It was also used for story-telling, oratory, various ceremonies, and by deaf people for ordinary daily use. His creation of the syllabary is particularly noteworthy as he could not previously read any script.
In his system, each symbol represents a syllable rather than a single phoneme ; the 85 originally 86  characters provide a suitable method to write Cherokee.
Although some symbols resemble LatinGreekand Cyrillic letters, the relationship between symbols and sounds is different. The success of the Cherokee syllabary inspired James Evansa missionary in what is now Manitobaduring the s to develop Cree syllabics.
Evans had originally adapted the Latin script to Ojibwe see Evans systembut after learning of the Cherokee syllabary, he experimented with invented scripts based on his familiarity with shorthand and Devanagari.
Cree syllabics are primarily a Canadian phenomenon, but are used occasionally in the United States by communities that straddle the border. Farmers in the Eastern Woodlands tended fields of maize with hoes and digging sticks, while their neighbors in the Southeast grew tobacco as well as food crops.
On the Plains, some tribes engaged in agriculture but also planned buffalo hunts in which herds were driven over bluffs. Dwellers of the Southwest deserts hunted small animals and gathered acorns to grind into flour with which they baked wafer-thin bread on top of heated stones.
Some groups on the region's mesas developed irrigation techniques, and filled storehouses with grain as protection against the area's frequent droughts.Early Life.
Mary Henrietta Kingsley was born in to Mary Bailey and George Kingsley in Islington, England. Her father came from a prominent literary family and spent much of his life travelling around the world, documenting his journeys. Arkansas was home to Native Americans long before Europeans arrived.
The first explorers met Indians whose ancestors had occupied the region for thousands of years. 3. This extract describes how the explorers were missing two bullet-bags and the contents.
When the loss was reported, how quick and effective was the Native Americans response? Early Settlers and Native Americans The entire clash of two different cultures dates back all the way into the beginning of the early European arrival. All the different countries in Europe were all trying to find there own place in the new world by claiming the land for their country.
Read the second page of Document #11 and at the same time review the information in Document # Write a one paragraph opinion on the statement: The "face of North America" was drastically altered as a result of the early encounters between Native Americans and Europeans.
Cite evidence from the documents. Risky Relations: A closer look at the relationships between Native Americans and European settlers during the seventeenth century At the start of the seventeenth century, Native Americans greeted European settlers with much excitement.