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Use in ancient cultures[ edit ] Aztec women are handed flowers and smoking tubes before eating at a banquet, Florentine Codex16th century. Smoking's history dates back to as early as — BC, when the agricultural product began to be cultivated in Mesoamerica and South America ; consumption later evolved into burning the plant substance either by accident or with intent of exploring other means of consumption.
Smoking in the Americas probably had its origins in the incense-burning ceremonies of shamans but was later adopted for pleasure or as a social tool.
Eastern North American tribes would carry large amounts of tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item and would often smoke it in ceremonial pipeseither in sacred ceremonies or to seal bargains.
As a pain killer it was used for earache and toothache and occasionally as a poultice. Smoking was said by the desert Indians to be a cure for colds, especially if the tobacco was mixed with the leaves of the small desert SageSalvia dorriior the root of Indian balsam or cough rootLeptotaenia multifida, the addition of which was thought to be particularly good for asthma and tuberculosis.
Insix years after the settlement of Jamestown, VirginiaJohn Rolfe was credited as the first settler to successfully raise tobacco as a cash crop. The demand quickly grew as tobacco, referred to as "brown gold", revived the Virginia joint stock company from its failed gold expeditions.
This became a motivator to settle west into the unknown continent, and likewise an expansion of tobacco production. However, the practice was revived in with the invention of the cotton gin.
The first report of a smoking Englishman is of a sailor in Bristol inseen "emitting smoke from his nostrils".
At the same time, caravans from Morocco brought tobacco to the areas around Timbuktuand the Portuguese brought the commodity and the plant to southern Africa, establishing the popularity of tobacco throughout all of Africa by the s.
Soon after its introduction to the Old World, tobacco came under frequent criticism from state and religious leaders. Murad IVsultan of the Ottoman Empire —40 was among the first to attempt a smoking ban by claiming it was a threat to public morals and health.
The Chongzhen Emperor of China issued an edict banning smoking two years before his death and the overthrow of the Ming dynasty. Later, the Manchu rulers of the Qing dynastywould proclaim smoking "a more heinous crime than that even of neglecting archery".
In Edo period Japan, some of the earliest tobacco plantations were scorned by the shogunate as being a threat to the military economy by letting valuable farmland go to waste for the use of a recreational drug instead of being used to plant food crops. Religious leaders have often been prominent among those who considered smoking immoral or outright blasphemous.
Inthe Patriarch of Moscow forbade the sale of tobacco, and sentenced men and women who flouted the ban to have their nostrils slit and their backs flayed.
Despite some concerted efforts, restrictions and bans were largely ignored. From this point on for some centuries, several administrations withdrew from efforts at discouragement and instead turned tobacco trade and cultivation into sometimes lucrative government monopolies.
Tobacco, both product and plant, followed the major trade routes to major ports and markets, and then on into the hinterlands. The English language term smoking appears to have entered currency in the late 18th century, before which less abbreviated descriptions of the practice such as drinking smoke were also in use.
This, along with a change in demand, accompanied the industrialization of cigarette production as craftsman James Bonsack created a machine in to partially automate their manufacture.
Photograph by Lewis Hine, In Germany, anti-smoking groups, often associated with anti-liquor groups,  first published advocacy against the consumption of tobacco in the journal Der Tabakgegner The Tobacco Opponent in and InFritz Lickint of Dresden, Germany, published a paper containing formal statistical evidence of a lung cancer—tobacco link.
During the Great Depression Adolf Hitler condemned his earlier smoking habit as a waste of money,  and later with stronger assertions.
This movement was further strengthened with Nazi reproductive policy as women who smoked were viewed as unsuitable to be wives and mothers in a German family.
By the end of the Second World War, American cigarette manufacturers quickly reentered the German black market.
Illegal smuggling of tobacco became prevalent,  and leaders of the Nazi anti-smoking campaign were silenced. Health authorities sided with these claims up untilfrom which they reversed their position.
The Tobacco Master Settlement Agreementoriginally between the four largest US tobacco companies and the Attorneys General of 46 states, restricted certain types of tobacco advertisement and required payments for health compensation; which later amounted to the largest civil settlement in United States history.
Although the per-capita number of smokers decreased, the average number of cigarettes consumed per person per day increased from 22 in to 30 in This paradoxical event suggests that those who quit smoked less, while those who continued to smoke moved to smoke more light cigarettes.
In the developing worldhowever, tobacco consumption continues to rise at 3.If Mom or Dad Is a Smoker, Their Teenager Is More Likely To Be a Smoker Too; Child and Adolescent Health, Chronic Disease. What accounts for the strong parental influence as it relates to adolescent smoking?
The fact that adolescent smoking was more strongly affected by parents who were current smokers than by parents who had quit, . Since Rational Recovery entered public consciousness, I have had the privilege of appearing on a good number – actually hundreds – of TV and radio ashio-midori.com were tiresome affairs hosted by steppers, others were single-station shows, sometimes at late hours when most listeners were in dreamland, but some talkshows were actually stimulating interviews with hosts who could understand.
The fact that adolescent smoking was more strongly affected by parents who were current smokers than by parents who had quit, the authors write, suggests a role-modeling effect. In other words, teens imitate their parents. Based on surveys conducted as part of its Internet & American Life Project, the Pew Research Center reports that 95% of teens ages 12 to 17 use the Internet and 81% of the same age group uses social media.
Columbia University’s National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse reports that teenagers who typically spend any length of time on social networking sites every day are more likely to. Teenagers are less likely to be overweight if their mum or dad had a positive attitude during pregnancy, a new study finds.
Teenagers are less likely to be overweight if their mum or dad had a. smoking and heavy drinking by their parents. the influence of friends and peers take on greater importance, but research clearly demonstrates the continued significance of parents in shaping the behaviors The Family Environment and Adolescent Well-being: Exposure to Positive and Negative Family Influences Highlights.