Evolution[ edit ] Frederick Jackson Turner, c. They adapted to the new physical, economic and political environment in certain ways—the cumulative effect of these adaptations was Americanization. Successive generations moved further inland, shifting the lines of settlement and wilderness, but preserving the essential tension between the two.
Frederick Jackson Turner Turners frontier thesis apush existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward explain American development. Turner was born in Portage, Wisconsin, in His father, a journalist by trade and local historian by avocation, piqued Turner's interest in history.
After his graduation from the University of Wisconsin inTurner decided to become a professional historian, and received his Ph. He served as a teacher and scholar at the University of Wisconsin from towhen he joined Harvard's faculty. He retired in but continued his research until his death in Turner's contribution to American history was to argue that the frontier past best explained the distinctive history of the United States.
He most cogently articulated this idea in "The Significance of the Frontier in American History," which he first delivered to a gathering of historians in at Chicago, then the site of the World's Columbian Exposition, an enormous fair to mark the four-hundredth anniversary of Columbus' voyage.
Although almost totally ignored at the time, Turner's lecture eventually gained such wide distribution and influence that a contemporary scholar has called it "the single most influential piece of writing in the history of American history.
Census Bureau had announced the disappearance of a contiguous frontier line. Turner took this "closing of the frontier" as an opportunity to reflect upon the influence it had exercised. He argued that the frontier had meant that every American generation returned "to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line.
This development, in Turner's description of the frontier, "begins with the Indian and the hunter; it goes on with the disintegration of savagery by the entrance of the trader Turner's essay reached triumphalist heights in his belief that the promotion of individualistic democracy was the most important effect of the frontier.
Individuals, forced to rely on their own wits and strength, he believed, were simply too scornful of rank to be amenable to the exercise of centralized political power.
Turner offered his frontier thesis as both an analysis of the past and a warning about the future. If the frontier had been so essential to the development of American culture and democracy, then what would befall them as the frontier closed?
It was on this forboding note that he closed his address: His critics have denied everything from his basic assumptions to the small details of his argument. The mainstream of the profession has long since discarded Turner's assumption that the frontier is the key to American history as a whole; they point instead to the critical influence of such factors as slavery and the Civil War, immigration, and the development of industrial capitalism.
But even within Western and frontier history, a growing body of historians has contested Turner's approach. Some have long disputed the very idea of a frontier of "free land. The numerous Indian wars provoked by American expansion belie Turner's argument that the American "free land" frontier was a sharp contrast with European nations' borders with other states.
On a more analytic level, an increasing number of Western historians have found the very concept of a frontier dubious, because it applies to too many disparate places and times to be useful. How much do Puritan New England and the California of the transcontinental railroad really have in common?
Many such critics have sought to replace the idea of a moving frontier with the idea of the West as a distinctive region, much like the American South. Where Turner told the triumphalist story of the frontier's promotion of a distinctly American democracy, many of his critics have argued that precisely the opposite was the case.
Cooperation and communities of various sorts, not isolated individuals, made possible the absorption of the West into the United States.
Most migrant wagon trains, for example, were composed of extended kinship networks. Moreover, as the 19th century wore on, the role of the federal government and large corporations grew increasingly important.
Corporate investors headquartered in New York laid the railroads; government troops defeated Indian nations who refused to get out of the way of manifest destiny; even the cowboys, enshrined in popular mythology as rugged loners, were generally low-level employees of sometimes foreign-owned cattle corporations.
Moreover, these revisionist scholars argue, for many places the West has not been the land of freedom and opportunity that both Turnerian history and popular mythology would have us believe. For many women, Asians, Mexicans who suddenly found themselves residents of the United States, and, of course, Indians, the West was no promised land.
The more foreboding and cautionary tale which increasing numbers of Western historians have offered in place of Turner's account has provoked sharp controversy. Western historians who still adhere roughly to Turner's approach accuse their opponents of mistaking a simple-minded political correctness for good scholarship in their quest to recount only the doom and gloom of the Western past.Frederick Jackson Turner ___Frederick Jackson Turner___ The Significance of the Frontier in American History [Footnote in Turner, Frontier, ] At the Atlantic frontier one can study the germs of processes repeated at each successive frontier.
Nov 11, · A brief review of everything important about the Frontier that you need to know to succeed in APUSH. If you would like to download the PowerPoint used in the. Definition: Turner Thesis (scroll down for definition) Definition: Turner Thesis After the closing of the American Frontier, Harvard professor Frederick Jackson Turner wrote a thesis in that concluded that the West (Frontier) personified the story of America.
Turner Thesis () Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis History professor, Univ. of Wisconsin Thesis: frontier experience and westward expansion had stimulated individualism, nationalism, and democracy Suggested “frontier” had alleviated social and economic problems of an industrial society.
Opposition to the Turner Thesis. In , in "The Frontier and American Institutions: A Criticism of the Turner Thesis," Professor George Wilson Pierson debated the validity of the Turner thesis, stating that many factors influenced American culture besides the looming frontier.
Although he respected Turner, Pierson strongly argues his point by First published: Frederick’Jackson’Turner’s’ Frontier(Thesis’argued’the Microsoft Word - Period 7 ashio-midori.com Created Date: 4/17/ PM.